CHAPTER VII: THE JUDICIARY
The Judicial Power of the Republic shall be vested in a Supreme Court and such subordinate
courts as the legislature may from time to time establish. The courts shall apply both statutory
and customary laws in accordance with the standards enacted by the Legislature. Judgements of
the Supreme Court shall be final and binding and shall not be subject to appeal or review by any
other branch of Government. Nothing in this Article shall prohibit administrative consideration of
the Justiciable matter prior to review by a court of competent jurisdiction.
The Supreme Court shall be final arbiter of constitutional issues and shall exercise final appellate
jurisdiction in all cases whether emanating from courts of record, courts not of record,
administrative agencies, autonomous agencies or any other authority, both as to law and fact
except cases involving ambassadors, ministers, or cases in which a country is a party. In all such
cases, the Supreme Court shall exercise original jurisdiction. The Legislature shall make no law
nor create any exceptions as would deprive the Supreme Court of any of the powers granted
The Supreme Court shall comprise of one Chief Justice and four Associate Justice, a majority of
whom shall be deemed competent to transact the business of the Court. If a quorum is not
obtained to enable the Court to hear any case, a circuit judge in the order of seniority shall sit as
an ad hoc justice of the Supreme Court.
The Chief Justice and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court shall, with the consent of the
Senate, be appointed and commissioned by the President; provided that any person so appointed
a) a citizen of Liberia and of good moral character; and
b) a counselor of the Supreme Court Bar who has practiced for at least 5 years.
The judges of subordinate courts of record shall, with the consent of the Senate, be appointed
and commissioned by the President, provided that any person so appointed shall be:
a) a citizen of Liberia and of good moral character; and
b) an Attorney-at-Law whom has practiced for at least 3 years, or a counselor of the Supreme
The Chief Justice and the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court and all judges of subordinate
courts shall, before assuming the functions of their office, subscribe to a solemn oath or
affirmation to discharge faithfully and impartially the duties and functions of their office and to
preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and laws of the Republic. The oath or affirmation
shall be administered by the president or his designee.
The Chief Justice and Associates Justices of the Supreme Court and the judges of subordinate
courts of record shall hold office during good behavior. They may be removed upon impeachment
and conviction by the Legislature based on proved misconduct, gross breach of duty, inability to
perform the functions of their office, or conviction in a court of law for treason, bribery or other
a) The Justices of the Supreme Court and all other judges shall receive such salaries, allowances
and benefits as shall be established by law. Such salaries shall be subject to taxes as defined by
law, provided that they shall not otherwise be diminished. Allowances and benefits paid to
Justices of the Supreme Court and judges of subordinate courts may by law be increased but
may not be diminished except under a national program enacted by the Legislature; nor shall
such allowance and benefits be subject to taxation.
b) The Chief Justice and the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court and judges of subordinate
courts of record shall be retired at the age of seventy; provided, however, that a justice of judge
who has attained that age may continue in office for as long as may be necessary to enable him
to render judgement or perform any other judicial duty in regard to proceedings entertained by
him before the attained that age.
No judicial official shall be summoned, arrested, detained, prosecuted or tried civilly or criminally
by or at the instance of any person or authority on account of judicial opinions rendered or
expressed, judicial statements made and judicial acts done in the course of a trial in open court or
in chambers, except for treason or other felonies, misdemeanor or breach of the peace.
Statements made and acts done by such officials in the course of a judicial proceeding shall be
privileged, and, subject to the above qualification, no such statement made or acts done shall be
admissible into evidence against them at any trial or proceeding.
In all matters of contempt of court, whether in the Supreme Court or in other courts, the penalties
to be imposed shall be fixed by the Legislature and shall conform to the provision on
Fundamental Rights laid down in this Constitution.
The Supreme Court shall from time to time make rules of court for the purpose of regulating the
practice, procedures and manner by which cases shall be commenced and heard before it and all
other subordinate courts. It shall prescribe such code of conduct for lawyers appearing before it
and all other subordinate courts as may be necessary to facilitate the proper discharge of the
court’s functions. Such rules and code, however, shall not contravene any statutory provisions or
any provisions of this Constitution.
a) Treason against the Republic shall consist of:
(1) levying war against the Republic;
(2) aligning oneself with or aiding and abetting another nation or people with whom Liberia is at
war or in a state of war;
(3) acts of espionage for an enemy state;
(4) attempting by overt act to overthrow the Government, rebellion against the Republic,
insurrection and mutiny; and
(5) abrogating or attempting to abrogate, subverting or attempting or conspiring to subvert the
Constitution by use of force or show of force or any other means which attempts to undermine
The Legislature shall have the power to declare the punishment for treason; provided, however,
that such punishment shall not include a deprivation or forfeiture of the right of inheritance by the
convicted person of any property although he may not be entitled to enjoyment thereof for as long
as he continues to serve the term of imprisonment imposed after conviction in a court of
competent jurisdiction. The right to enjoyment of any property inherited or otherwise conveyed to
or acquired by such convicted person shall be automatically restored upon serving the term of
imprisonment or other punishment, or upon an executive pardon by the President. No punishment
shall preclude the inheritance and enjoyment, or cause the forfeiture by others entitled thereto, of
any property which the convicted person at the time of any conviction or subsequent thereto may
have possessed or been seized.